Investigation of availability of raw perlite in refractory building material production

Ergün Yeşilyurt, Osman Şimşek, Ahmet Bilgil


Perlite having rich reserves in Turkey is basic industrial raw materials in line with sustainable development objectives. In recent years due to the thermal insulation properties expanded perlite has attracted the attention of researchers. It is started to use in some construction areas. Binder material is used to shape in the manufacture of refractory bricks. Desired material was baked at high temperature. In this study, perlite between 75-600 µm particle size was subjected to heat treatment at different temperatures and investigated to use in refractory construction materials production. Perlite grains clinging to each other engage a smooth shape. Gypsum is used as an activator in different proportions to achieve this. The samples were subjected to heat treatment at 1050-1200 ºC for 30 minutes. In the 5% gypsum mixture highest compressive strength at 1150 ° C was calculated as 47 MPa. Unit volume weight is considered as 1.95 g/cm3, water absorption by weight is determined as 0.30%. Superficial abrasion loss was determined to be 20 mm. Degree of porosity is calculated as 15%. Compactness was found to be 85%. Furthermore in the results of experiment of freezing of the obtained products was not found any damage or any strength loss.


Perlite, Construction material, Concrete, Refractory concrete

Full Text:



İ.B. Topçu, B. Işıkdağ, "Manufacture of high heat conductivity resistant clay bricks containing perlite," Building and Environment, 42, pp. 3540-3546, 2007.

A. Ceylan, V. Uz, E. Taşcı, "The effects of raw perlite and extended perlite adding in terracotta bodies," IV. International Eskişehir Terra Cotta Symposium, Turkey, pp. 199-215, 2010.

İ. Turkmen, A. Kantarcı, "Effects of expanded perlite aggregate and different curing conditions on the physical and mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete," Building and Environment, 42, pp. 2377-2383, 2007.

İ.B.Topçu, B. Işıkdağ, "Effect of expanded perlite aggregate on the properties of light weight concrete," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 204, pp. 34–38, 2008.

R. Demirboğa, İ. Örüng, R. Gül, "Effects of expanded perlite aggregate and mineral admixtures on the compressive strength of low density concretes," Cement and Concrete Research, 31, pp. 1627-1632, 2001.

M. Dondi, G. Ercolani, G. Guarini, M. Raimondo, "Orimulsion fly ash in clay bricks-part 1: composition and thermal behaviour of ash," Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 22, pp. 1729–1735, 2002.

M. Dondi, M. Marsigli, B. Fabbri, "Recycling of industrial and urban wastes in brick production- a review," Tile & Brick Int., 13, pp. 218–315, 1997.

D.F. Lin, C.H. Weng, "Use of sewage sludge ash as brick material," J. Environ. Eng., 127, pp. 922–927, 2001.

C.H. Weng, D.F. Lin, P.C. Chiang, "Utilization of sludge as brick materials," Advances in Environmental Research, 7, pp. 679–685, 2003.

I. Demir, M.S. Başpınar, "Use of marble dust on lightweight building block production," IX. Marble Symposium in Turkey, pp. 213-220, 2003.

L.H. Yu, H. Ou, L.L. Lee, "Investigation on puzzolanic effect of perlite powder in concrete," Cement and Concrete Research, 33, pp. 73-76, 2003.

T.K. Erdem, Ç. Meral, M. Tokyay, T.Y. Erdoğan, "Use of perlite as a puzzolanic addition in producing blended cements," Cement and Concrete Composites, 29, pp. 13–21, 2007.

A. Şahin, "Refractory Materials, Refractories and industrial furnaces lecture notes," September, 2017.

D.P.H. Hasselman, "Unified theory of thermal shock fracture initiation and crack propagation in brittle ceramics," Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 52, pp. 600-604, 1969.

T. Husovic, R. Jancic, M. Cvetkovic, M. Mitrakovic, Z. Popovic, "Thermal shock behavior of alumina based refractories: fracture resistance parameters and water quench test," Materials Letters, 38, pp. 372-378, 1999.

N.S. Köksal, B.S. Ünlü, Ç. Meriç, "Investigation of thermal shock behaviourin alumina based refractory bricks," Pamukkale University Engineering College, Journal of Engineering Sciences, 9, pp. 147-151, 2003.

"Turkish Commission of Industrial Raw Materials, Raw materials working group report on ceramic, refractory, glass," Under secretary of Turkish State Planning Organization, Ankara-Turkey, Vol. 2, 1995.

J. Nakayama, M. Ishizuka, "Experimental evidence for thermal shock damage resistance," Ceramic Bulletin, 45, pp. 666-669, 1966.

A.G. Lanin, A.L. Tkachev, "Numerical method of thermal shock resistance estimation by quenching of samples in water," Journal of Materials Science, 35, pp. 2353-2359, 2000.

A.V. Shevchenko, K. Ruban, V. Dudnik, "Highly-workable alumina-base ceramics," Refractorie sand Industrial Ceramics, 41, pp. 1-10, 2000.

N.S. Köksal, "Investigation of mechanical properties of alumina refractory material," Technological Research: Electronic Journal of Machine Technology, 3, pp. 23-28, 2005.

L. Wang, J.L. Shi, H.R. Chen, Z.L. Hua, T.S. Yen, "Effect of size of the starting powders on the thermal shock resistance of alumina ceramics," J. Mater. Sci. Lett., 20, pp. 341-342, 2001.

G. Ulusoy, "Pumice using isolated monolithic materials manufacture," Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration, (MTA Journal), 129, pp. 89-96, 2004.

M.A. Montero, M.M. Jordán, M.B. Almendro-Candel, T. Sanfeliu, M.S. Hernández-Crespo, "The use of calcium carbonate residue from the stone inndustry in manufacturing of ceramic tile bodies," Applied Clay Science, 43, pp. 186-189, 2009.

M. Lanzón, P.A. García-Ruiz, "Lightweight cement mortars: advantage sand in conveniences of expanded perlite and its influence on fresh and hardened state and durability," Constr. Build. Mater., 22, pp. 1798–1806, 2008.

Ö. Sengul, S. Azizi, F. Karaosmanoglu, M.A. Tasdemir, "Effect of expanded perlite on the mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of lightweight concrete," Energy Build., 43, pp. 671–676, 2011.

D. Okuyucu, B. Uzal, L. Turanli, T. Tankut, "Some characteristics of fibre-reinforced semi-lightweight concrete containing unexpanded perlite both as aggregate and as a supplementary cementing material," Mag. Concr. Res., 68, pp. 1–10, 2011.

D. Kramar, V. Bindiganavile, "Mechanical properties and size effects in lightweight mortars containing expanded perlite aggregate," Materials and Structures, 44, pp. 735–748, 2011.

M. Mamun, V. Bindiganavile, "Mitigating shrinkage cracking in stuccothrough the replacement of fine aggregate with expanded perlite," Can. J. Civ. Eng., 39, pp. 906–914, 2012.

M. Sriwattanapong, T. Sinsiri, S. Pantawee, P. Chindaprasirt, "A study of lightweight concrete admixed with perlite," Suranarre J. Sci. Technol., 20, pp. 227–234, 2013.

S.G. Abhijeet, V.R. Rao, M.V.N. Vinayaka, A. Sivakumar, M. Vasan, A.B.V. Yaswanth, "Effect of perlite on thermal conductivity of self compacting concrete," Proc. Soc. Behav. Sci., 104, pp. 188–197, 2013.

D. Kramar, V. Bindiganavile, "Impact response of lightweight mortars containing expanded perlite," Cement Concr. Compos., 37, pp. 205–214, 2013.

S.B. Keskin, K. Sulaiman, M. Sahmaran, İ.Ö. Yaman, "Effect of presoaked expanded perlite aggregate on the dimensional stability and mechanical properties of engineering cementitious composites," J. Mater. Civil Eng. (ASCE), 25, pp. 763–771, 2013.

S.T. Erdoğan, A.U. Sağlık, "Early-ageactivation of cement pastes and mortars containing ground perlite as a pozzolan," Cement Concr. Compos., 38, pp. 29–39, 2013.

N. Bozkurt, "The effect of high temperature on concrete containing perlite powder," SDU Int. Technol. Sci., 5, pp. 87–93, 2013.

S. Bakhtiyari, A. Allahverdi, M. Rais-Ghasemi, "A case study on modifying the fire resistance of self-compacting concrete with expanded perlite aggregate and zeolite powder additives," Asian J. Civil Eng. (BHRC), 15, pp. 339–349, 2014.

H.H.M. Darweesh, "Utilization of perlite rock in blended cement-Part I: physicomechanical properties," Direct Res. J. Chem. Mater. Sci. (DRCMS), 2, pp. 1–12, 2014.

A.A. Ramezanianpour, M.M. Karein, P. Vosoughi, A. Pilvar, S. Isapour, F. Moodi, "Effects of calcined perlite powder as a SCM on the strength and permeability of concrete," Constr. Build. Mater., 66, pp. 222–228, 2014.

H. Oktay, R. Yumrutaş, A. Akpolat, "Mechanical and thermo physical properties of lightweigh aggregate concretes," Constr. Build. Mater., 96, pp. 217–225, 2015.

E.T. Dawood, "Experimental study of lightweight concrete used for the production of canoe," Al-Rafidain Eng., 23, pp. 96–106, 2015.

H. Binici, F. Kalaycı, "Production of perlite based thermal insulation material," Int. J. Acad. Res. Reflec., 7, pp. 47–54, 2015.

B. Isıkdağ, "Characterization of lightweight ferrocement panels containing expanded perlite-based mortar," Constr. Build. Mater., 31, pp. 15–23, 2015.

Y. Maaloufa, S. Mounir, A. Khabbazi, J. Kettar, A. Khaldoun, "Thermal characterization of materials based on clay and granular: cork or expanded perlite," Energy Proc., 74, pp. 1150–1161, 2015.

M. Jedidi, O. Benjeddon, C. Soussi, "Effect of expanded perlite aggregate dosage on properties of lightweight concrete," Jordon J. Civil Eng., 9, pp. 278–291, 2015.

J. Zhang, X. Guan, X. Song, H. Hou, Z. Yang, J. Zhu, "Preparation and properties of gypsum based energy storage materials with capric acid-palmitic acid/expanded perlit composite PCM," Energy Build., 92, pp. 155–160, 2015.

O. Chung, S.G. Jeong, S. Kim, "Preparation of energy efficient paraffinic PCMs/expanded vermiculite and perlite composites for energy saving in buildings," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 137, pp. 107–112, 2015.

S. Abidi, B. Nait-Ali, Y. Joliff, C. Favotto, "Impact of perlite, vermiculite and cement on the thermal conductivity of a plaster composite material: experimental and numerical approaches," Compos. B., 68, pp. 392–400, 2015.

H. Shoukry, M.F. Kotkata, S.A. Abo-El-Enein, M.S. Morsy, S.S. Shebl, "Thermophysical properties of nanostructured lightweight fiber reinforced cementitious composites," Constr. Build. Mater., 102, pp. 167–174, 2016.

S. Abidi, Y. Joliff, C. Favotto, "Impact of perlite, vermiculite and cement on theYoung modulus of a plaster composite material: experimental, analytical and numerical approaches," Compos. B., 92, pp. 28–36, 2016.

M. Taherishargh, I.V. Belova, G.E. Murch, T. Fiedler, "On the mechanical properties of heat-treated expanded perlite–aluminium syntactic foam," Materials and Design, 63, pp. 375–383, 2014.

M. Taherishargh, M.A. Sulong, I.V. Belova, G.E. Murch, T. Fiedler, "On the particle size effect in expanded perlite aluminium syntactic foam," Materials and Design, 66, pp. 294–303, 2015.

P. Krıvenko, O. Petropavlovskıı, H. Voznıuk, "Alkalıne alumınosılıcate-based adhesıves for concrete and ceramıc tıles," Romanian Journal Of Materials, 46, pp. 419 – 423, 2016.

Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA), Perlite Nevsehir Detail Study, MTA, Ankara, 1971.

Turkh National Standards, TS EN 13279-1, Gypsum binders and gypsum plasters - Part 1: Definitions and requirements, Türk Standardları Enstitüsü, Ankara, 2014.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Ergün Yeşilyurt, Osman Şimşek, Ahmet Bilgil

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2303-4521

Digital Object Identifier DOI: 10.21533/pen

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License