Groundwater quality assessment using water quality index: A case study of Al Najaf City, Iraq

Hussein Abdulmuttaleb Alikhan, Ayad Kadhim Hussein, Asmaa Sahib Alshukri


Water Quality Index (WQI) plays an important role and a powerful tool for analyzing the overall characteristics of water quality. It is considered a common method to replace the data on water quality trends to the general public and policymakers. In the study area, five wells are used at Jazeerat Al Najaf. As stated by the WHO drinking water quality standard, nine physiochemical parameters have been chosen for water quality index determination. The water quality index is used depending on the parameters and calculated utilizing the weighted arithmetic method for assessing the groundwater quality. WQI for pH comes under the excellent category, for electrical conductivity based on water quality classification in the study area is noted under unsuitable for the drinking purpose category. As well, WQI for sulfate and total dissolved solids found under very poor category. Whilst WQI for the calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride came under poor classifications based on the same water quality categorization. Moreover, the overall average result of the WQI classified under poor category (100.206) that influences the socio-economic and health conditions of human beings.


Groundwater Quality, Physicochemical parameters, Water Quality Index, Weighted Arithmetic method, Najaf city

Full Text:



G. Neag, “Soil and groundwater remediation,” 2000.

P. Srinivas, G. N. Pradeep Kumar, A. Srinivatas Prasad, and T. Hemalatha, “Generation of groundwater quality index map-A case study,” Civ. Environ. Res., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 9–21, 2011.

I. S. Akoteyon, A. O. Omotayo, O. Soladoye, and H. O. Olaoye, “Determination of water quality index and suitability of urban river for municipal water supply in Lagos-Nigeria,” Eur. J. Sci. Res., vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 263–271, 2011.

J. Barr, S. Grego, E. Hassan, M. Niasse, W. Rast, and J. Talafré, “Regional challenges, global impacts,” Manag. Water under Uncertain. Risk, UN World Water Dev. Rep., vol. 4, 2012.

C. J. Perry and J. Bucknall, “Water resource assessment in the Arab world: new analytical tools for new challenges,” Water Arab World, p. 97, 2009.

G. Matta, “A study on physico-chemical Characteristics to assess the pollution status of river Ganga in Uttarakhand,” J. Chem. Pharm. Sci., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 210–217, 2014.

S. Singh and A. Hussian, “Water quality index development for groundwater quality assessment of Greater Noida sub-basin, Uttar Pradesh, India,” Cogent Eng., vol. 3, no. 1, p. 1177155, 2016.

S. A. Abbasi, T., and Abbasi, “Water Quality Indices,Elsevier, Amsterdam,. The Netherlands, 384pp,” 2012.

H. M. Hussain, M. Al-Haidarey, N. Al-Ansari, and S. Knutsson, “Evaluation and mapping groundwater suitability for irrigation using GIS in Najaf Governorate, IRAQ,” J. Environ. Hydrol., vol. 22, 2014.

A.-B. Sataa, S. Albakeri, and M. M. Salih, “Evaluation The Quality of Wells Water in Greenbelt Area North of AL-Najaf Al Ashraf City,” Eng. Technol. J., vol. 34, no. 14 Part (A) Engineering, pp. 2692–2704, 2016.

R. M. Brown, N. I. McClelland, R. A. Deininger, and M. F. O’Connor, “A water quality index—crashing the psychological barrier,” in Indicators of environmental quality, Springer, 1972, pp. 173–182.

K. Yogendra and E. T. Puttaiah, “Determination of water quality index and suitability of an urban waterbody in Shimoga Town, Karnataka,” in Proceedings of Taal2007: The 12th world lake conference, 2008, vol. 342, p. 346.

R. M. Chowdhury, S. Y. Muntasir, and M. M. Hossain, “Water quality index of water bodies along Faridpur-Barisal road in Bangladesh,” Glob Eng Tech Rev, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 1–8, 2012.

H. A. Ameen, “Spring water quality assessment using water quality index in villages of Barwari Bala, Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq,” Appl. Water Sci., vol. 9, no. 8, p. 176, 2019.

Y. Meride and B. Ayenew, “Drinking water quality assessment and its effects on residents health in Wondo genet campus, Ethiopia,” Environ. Syst. Res., vol. 5, no. 1, p. 1, 2016.

N. B. Bhatti, A. A. Siyal, and A. L. Qureshi, “Groundwater quality assessment using water quality index: A Case study of Nagarparkar, Sindh, Pakistan,” Sindh Univ. Res. Journal-SURJ (Science Ser., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 227–234, 2018.

W. H. Organization, “Guidelines for drinking-water quality: first addendum to the fourth edition,” 2017.

F. M. Kizar, “A comparison between weighted arithmetic and Canadian methods for a drinking water quality index at selected locations in shatt al-kufa,” in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2018, vol. 433, no. 1, p. 12026.

N. Rahmanian et al., “Analysis of physiochemical parameters to evaluate the drinking water quality in the State of Perak, Malaysia,” J. Chem., vol. 2015, 2015.

P. N. Patil, D. V Sawant, and R. N. Deshmukh, “Physico-chemical parameters for testing of water–A review,” Int. J. Environ. Sci., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 1194–1207, 2012.

A. Khalid, A. H. Malik, A. Waseem, S. Zahra, and G. Murtaza, “Qualitative and quantitative analysis of drinking water samples of different localities in Abbottabad district, Pakistan,” Int. J. Phys. Sci., vol. 6, no. 33, pp. 7480–7489, 2011.

U. M. Qureshimatva, R. R. Maurya, S. B. Gamit, R. D. Patel, and H. A. Solanki, “Determination of physico-chemical parameters and water quality index (Wqi) of Chandlodia Lake, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India,” J Env. Anal Toxicol, vol. 5, no. 288, pp. 525–2161, 2015.


V. Sajitha and S. A. Vijayamma, “Study of physico-chemical parameters and pond water quality assessment by using water quality index at Athiyannoor Panchayath, Kerala, India,” Emergent Life Sci. Res., vol. 2, pp. 46–51, 2016.

S. Karavoltsos, A. Sakellari, N. Mihopoulos, M. Dassenakis, and M. J. Scoullos, “Evaluation of the quality of drinking water in regions of Greece,” Desalination, vol. 224, no. 1–3, pp. 317–329, 2008.

A. Barakat, R. Meddah, M. Afdali, and F. Touhami, “Physicochemical and microbial assessment of spring water quality for drinking supply in Piedmont of Béni-Mellal Atlas (Morocco),” Phys. Chem. Earth, Parts A/B/C, vol. 104, pp. 39–46, 2018.

S. Bouslah, L. Djemili, and L. Houichi, “Water quality index assessment of Koudiat Medouar Reservoir, northeast Algeria using weighted arithmetic index method,” J. water L. Dev., vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 221–228, 2017.

J. A. Cotruvo, “2017 WHO guidelines for drinking water quality: first addendum to the fourth edition,” Journal‐American Water Work. Assoc., vol. 109, no. 7, pp. 44–51, 2017.

D. Ziani, B. Abderrahmane, A. Boumazbeur, and L. Benaabidate, “Water quality assessment for drinking and irrigation using major ions chemistry in the Semiarid Region: case of Djacer Spring, Algeria,” Asian J Earth Sci, vol. 10, pp. 9–21, 2017.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Hussein Abdulmuttaleb Alikhan, Ayad Kadhim Hussein, Asmaa Sahib Alshukri

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2303-4521

Digital Object Identifier DOI: 10.21533/pen

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License