A study for the properties of the Portland cement from different sources available in the Iraqi market

Ahmed Taresh, Majid Abd, Walaa Mohammed Hamza


The quality of the cement used is the most important criteria for the implementation of the plain and reinforced concrete mixtures as well as the finishing works. So that the durability of concrete members and other cement applications is a function of the quality of the cement used. In recent years,the Iraqi marketimported many types of cement from another countries, most of them have no typical tests for their chemical and physical properties or not confirm with the Iraqi specifications.In this study a comparisonwas made between random types of cements which are common used in Iraq throughout an experimental investigation. All tests werecarried in a accordance with the Iraqi specifications. For this purpose the cement mix was prepared with cement content of 300 kg/m3 and W/C ratio of 0.45. Mix proportioning of 1:1.5:3 was used for all of tested mixes. The initial and find setting times and slump tests were performedin order to identify thepropertiesof fresh concrete. On the other hand, tests of compressive strengths were adoptedto evaluatethe properties of hardened concrete. The resultsobtained showed that the locally produced cement (type Al-Muthana) is the most favorable cement compared with the other tested samples (from another countries), because of its high compressive strength and less water requirements to reach the standard consistency


Portland cement ,Concrete mixes ,Compressive strength ,Concrete tests

Full Text:



Adalberth K. Energy demand during the life cycle of a building.CIB Symposium Energy Mass and Flow in the life Cycle ofbuilding, Vienna, 1996.

Steiger P. Hochbaukonstruktionen nach Uokologishen Gesichtspunkten. SociTetTesuisse desing Tenieurset des architectes SIA.

Dokumentation D 0123, Zurich, 1995. [3] Walker P. SpeciHcation for stabilised pressed earth blocks. MasonryInternational 1996;10(1):1–6.

Houben H, Guillaud H. Earth building comprehensive guide. CRATone-EAG, Greenbelt, 1994.

Harris DJ. A quantitative approach to assessment of theenvironmental impact of building materials. Building andEnvironment 1999;34:751–8.

VenuMadhavaRao K, Venkatarama Reddy BV, Jagadish KS.Strength characteristics of stone masonry. Materials and Structures1997;30:233–7.

Kreijger PC. Ecological properties of buildings materials. Materialsand Structures 1987;20:248–54.

John Wiler (ed.) In Environmental Resource Guide. Buildingmaterials, a quarterly publication of The American Institute ofArchitect, 1997.

Wadel G. Sustainability in industrialized architecture: Modular lightweight construction applied to housing (La sostenibilidad en la construcción industrializada. La construcción modular ligera aplicada a la vivienda).Doctoral Thesis. Polytechnic University of Catalonia-Department of Architectural Constructions; 2009. Available online at: http://www.tdx.cat/TDX-0122110-180946.

Zabalza I, Aranda A, Scarpellini S. Life cycle assessment in buildings: State-of the-art and simplified LCA methodology as a complement for building certification.Building and Environment 2009;44:2510e20.

Janssen GMT, HendriksChF. Sustainable use of recycled materials in building construction. Advances in Building Technology; 2002:1399e406.

Kotaji S, Edwards S, Schuurmans A. Life cycle assessment in building and construction. A state-of-the-art report. Florida: SETAC press; 2003.

Kellenberger D, Althaus H- J. Relevance of simplifications in LCA of building components. Building and Environment 2009;44:818e25.

Nicoletti GM, Notarnicola B, Tassielli G. Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of flooring materials: ceramic versus marble tiles. Journal of Cleaner Production 2002;10(3):283e96.

Shukla A, Tiwari GN, Sodha MS. Embodied energy analysis of adobe house.Renewable Energy 2009;34(3):755e61.

Asif M, Muneer T, Kelley R. Life cycle assessment: a case study of a dwelling home in Scotland. Building and Environment 2007;42(3):1391e4.

Buchanan A, Levine B. Wood-based building materials and atmospheric

Alaa J, Al-Yousefi, H, Mohammed, A, Murtadha, H. “Optimization of water-cement ratio in concrete contains recycled polypropylene (PP) plastic waste, ” periodicals engineering and nature science, Vol 4, No 7 (2019).


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21533/pen.v8i1.978


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Authors

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2303-4521

Digital Object Identifier DOI: 10.21533/pen

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License