International regulation of the restriction of the use of environment

Ivan A. Kapitonov


Agreements in the field of energy involve possibilities to lower consumption of natural resources and increase in production of renewable sources of energy. However, such interactions between goals and average requirements of an energy complex can be successful only when concluding similar international agreements. As the relevance of the study is energy sector of developed countries, which strives for balance of sources of electricity. Novelty of the study is determined by the fact that for the first time agreements in the field of environmental conservation are considered as a reasonable compromise between the necessity to expand the number of applicable technologies and requirement to lower overall consumption. In this regard, the authors consider as the research object the European Union as the most harmonic combination of ecological requirements to the use of energy and general desire to compensate ecological damage. In the article, the legal framework of the agreement on energy regulation in block formation has been analysed using the example of the European Union. Practical application of the study is determined by that forming of coherent energy agreement depends on not only efforts of separate states, but also on the extent to which these conditions will be combined with economic policies and the quality content of energy conservation policies.


energy; agreement; regulation; restriction; energy law

Full Text:



S. Frank, H. Böttcher, M. Gusti, P. Havlík, G. Klaassen, G. Kindermann and M. Obersteiner, “Dynamics of the Land Use, Land Use Change, and Forestry Sink in the European Union: The Impacts of Energy and Climate Targets for 2030”, Climatic Change, vol. 138, no. 1, pp. 253-266, 2016. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-016-1729-7.

P. Werner, “The Rebound Effect of Information and Communication Technologies Development in the European Union”, Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 409-423, 2015. DOI: 10.1007/s12061-014-9125-z.

O. Kuik, “Climate Change Policies, Energy Security and Carbon Dependency Trade-Offs for the European Union in the Longer Term”, International Environmental Agreements, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 221-242, 2003. DOI: 10.1023/B:INEA.0000005625.44125.54.

A. Ronne, “Energy Law Developments in the European Union and Poland”, in P.J.J. Welfens and G. Yarrow (Eds.), Telecommunications and Energy in Systemic Transformation: International Dynamics, Deregulation and Adjustment in Network Industries, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 335-349, 1997. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-60519-2_11.

M. Charokopos, “Energy as an Issue Area in the European Union and the United States Foreign Policy-Making: Oscillating between Independence and Interdependence”, Journal of International Relations and Development, pp. 1-21, 2018. DOI: 10.1057/s41268-018-0132-6.

N.S. Bentsen and C. Felby, “Biomass for Energy in the European Union – a Review of Bioenergy Resource Assessments”, Biotechnology for Biofuels, vol. 5, no. 1, article number 25, 2012. DOI: 10.1186/1754-6834-5-25.

P. Moura, Ch. Nuttall, B. Harrison, Ch. Jehle and A. de Almeida, “Energy Savings Potential of Uninterruptible Power Supplies in European Union”, Energy Efficiency, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 993-1013, 2016. DOI: 10.1007/s12053-015-9406-7.

R. Lokhov and H. Welsch, “Emissions Trading between Russia and the European Union: A CGE Analysis of Potentials and Impacts”, Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1-23, 2008. DOI: 10.1007/BF03353972.

E. Bomberg, “Fracking and Framing in Transatlantic Perspective: A Comparison of Shale Politics in the US and European Union”, Journal of Transatlantic Studies, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 101-120, 2017. DOI: 10.1080/14794012.2016.1268789.

S. Mayer, “Path Dependence and Commission Activism in the Evolution of the European Union’s External Energy Policy”, Journal of International Relations and Development, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 251-278, 2008. DOI: 10.1057/jird.2008.12.

J. Geldermann, Ch. Jahn, Th. Spengler and O. Rentz, “Proposal for an Integrated Approach for the Assessment of Cross-Media Aspects Relevant for the Determination of ``best Available Techniques’’ Bat in the European Union”, The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 94-106, 1999. DOI: 10.1007/BF02979409.

M.G. Alatriste-Contreras, “The Relationship between the Key Sectors in the European Union Economy and the Intra-European Union Trade”, Journal of Economic Structures, vol. 4, no. 1, article number 14, 2015. DOI: 10.1186/s40008-015-0024-5.

Charter of economic rights and duties of states, December 12, 1974. Available at: (accessed 16/05/2019).

A. Böckem, “The Political Economy of Climate Policy-Making in the European Union,” Intereconomics, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 260-273, 1998. DOI: 10.1007/BF02929887.

J. Mendelsohn and Th.B. Sveen, “Risks, Crisis and the European Union Law: Implications and Parallels for Addressing Financial, Energy Security and Environmental Catastrophe”, in J. McIntyre-Mills, N. Romm and Y. Corcoran-Nantes (Eds.), Balancing Individualism and Collectivism: Social and Environmental Justice, Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 19-35, 2018. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-58014-2_2.

D.A. Tejada-Arango, A.S. Siddiqui, S. Wogrin and Efraim Centeno, “A Review of Energy Storage System Legislation in the US and the European Union,” Current Sustainable/Renewable Energy Reports, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 22-28, 2019. DOI: 10.1007/s40518-019-00122-7.

The Energy Charter Treaty (Annex 1 To The Final Act Of The European Energy Charter Conference) Lisbon, December 17 of 1994 / The Energy Charter Treaty And Related Documents. A Legal Framework For International Energy Cooperation. Available at: (accessed 16/05/2019).

P. Vajda, “The Role of the Industrial Emissions Directive in the European Union and Beyond”, ERA Forum, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 487-499, 2016. DOI: 10.1007/s12027-016-0441-4.

F. Li, “Lessons from Market Reform for Renewable Integration in the European Union”, Frontiers in Energy, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 623-629, 2018. DOI: 10.1007/s11708-018-0575-x.

P. del Río, M.A. Tarancón and C. Peñasco. “The Determinants of Support Levels for Wind Energy in the European Union. An Econometric Study”, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 391-410, 2014. DOI: 10.1007/s11027-012-9439-6.

M.E. Kulessa, S. Bode, S. Oberthür, J. Anderson, R. Walz, W. Schade and C. Doll, “The Climate Policy of the European Union”, Intereconomics, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 64–95, 2007. DOI: 10.1007/s10272-007-0211-1.

C. Capelo, J.F. Dias and R. Pereira, “A System Dynamics Approach to Analyse the Impact of Energy Efficiency Policy on ESCO Ventures in European Union Countries: A Case Study of Portugal”, Energy Efficiency, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 893-925, 2018. DOI: 10.1007/s12053-018-9617-9.

Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community, signed at Lisbon, 13 December 2007. Available at: (accessed 16/05/2019).

The Energy Community Treaty. Official Journal, 20.7.2006. L 198. Available at: (accessed 16/05/2019).

D/2011/O2/MC-EnG: Decision on the implementation of Directive 2009/72/EC, Directive 2009/73/EC, Regulation (EC) No 714/2009 and Regulation (EC) No 715/2009 and amending Articles 11 and 59 of the Energy Community Treaty. Available at: (accessed 16/05/2019).

Directive 2009/72/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity and repealing Directive 2003/54/EC. Available at: (accessed 16/05/2019).

Directive 2009/73/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 concerning common rules for the internal market in natural gas and repealing Directive 2003/55/EC. Available at: (accessed 16/05/2019).

Regulation (EC) No. 714/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 on conditions for access to the network for cross-border exchanges in electricity and repealing Regulation (EC) No. 1228/2003. Available at: (accessed 16/05/2019).

Communication from The Commission to The European Parliament, The Council, The European Economic and Social Committee and The Committee of The Regions. – Energy 2020 A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy {SEC(2010) 1346} /COM/2010/0639. Available at: (accessed 16/05/2019).

Communication From The Commission To The European Parliament, The Council, The European Economic and Social Committee and The Committee of The Regions “Energy Roadmap 2050”. Brussels, 15.12.2011 COM (2011) 885. Available at: (accessed 16/05/2019).

Communication from The Commission to The European Parliament and The Council “Energy Efficiency and its contribution to energy security and the 2030 Framework for climate and energy policy”. Brussels, 23.7.2014 COM (2014). Available at: (accessed 16/05/2019).

Directive 2003/55/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2003 concerning common rules for the internal market in natural gas and repealing Directive 98/30/EC. Available at: (accessed 16/05/2019).

Regulation (EC) No 1775/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 September 2005 on conditions for access to the natural gas transmission networks. Available at: (accessed 16/05/2019).

The European Commission Code of Conduct on Data Centres Energy Efficiency, Guide Version 1 (30th October 2008). Available at: (accessed 16/05/2019).

Regulation (EC) No. 715/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 on conditions for access to the natural gas transmission networks and repealing Regulation (EC) No 1775/2005. Available at: (accessed 16/05/2019).

Regulation (EC) No. 713/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 establishing an Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators. Available at: (accessed 16/05/2019).

L.M. Salvo, M.R. Santiago and H.C. Silva de Assis, “Biomarkers as a tool to evaluate environmental quality of aquatic ecosystems susceptible to pesticide contamination”, Periodico Tche Quimica, vol. 15, no. 30, pp. 56-64, 2018.

S.M. Villa, T.B. Stellato, J.R. Marques, M.E.B. Cotrim and M.A.F. Pires, “Quality assurance of anions environmental monitoring in IPEN's environmental monitoring program”, Periodico Tche Quimica, vol. 14, no. 27, pp. 91-96, 2017.

S.A. Lurie, Y.O. Solyaev, D.V. Lizunova, L.N. Rabinskiy, V.M. Bouznik and O. Menshykov, “Influence of mean distance between fibers on the effective gas thermal conductivity in highly porous fibrous materials”, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, no. 109, pp. 511-519, 2017.

N.A. Bulychev, E.L. Kuznetsova, V.V. Bodryshev and L.N. Rabinskiy, “Nanotechnological aspects of temperature-dependent decomposition of polymer solutions”, International Journal of Nanomechanics Science and Technology, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 91-97, 2018.

E.V. Lomakin, S.A. Lurie, L.N. Rabinskiy and Y.O. Solyaev, “Semi-inverse solution of a pure beam bending problem in gradient elasticity theory: The absence of scale effects”, Doklady Physics, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 161-164, 2018.

E.V. Lomakin, S.A. Lurie, P.A. Belov and L.N. Rabinskii, “Modeling of the localy-functional properties of the material damaged by fields of defects”, Doklady Physics, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 46-49, 2017.

S.A. Lurie, E.L. Kuznetsova, L.N. Rabinskii and E.I. Popova, “Erratum to refined gradient theory of scale-dependent superthin rods”, Mechanics of Solids, vol. 50, no. 3, p. 368, 2015.

E.L. Kuznetsova, D.V. Leonenko and E.I. Starovoitov, “Natural vibrations of three-layer circular cylindrical shells in an elastic medium”, Mechanics of Solids, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 359-366, 2015.

A.N. Danilin, N.N. Kurdumov, E.L. Kuznetsova and L.N. Rabinsky, “Modelling of deformation of wire spiral structures”, PNRPU Mechanics Bulletin, no. 4, pp. 72-93, 2015.

E.L. Kuznetsova, L.N. Rabinskiy and S.I. Zhavoronok, “On the equations of the analytical dynamics of the quasi-3D plate theory of I.N. Vekua type and some their solutions”, Journal of Vibroengineering, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 1108-1117, 2018.

A. Volkov and R. Melnikiene, “CAP direct payments system's linkage with environmental sustainability indicators”, Public Policy and Administration, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 231-244, 2017.

N.V. Zakharchenko, S.L. Hasanov, A.V. Yumashev, S.A. Lintser and M.I. Antipina, “Legal rationale of biodiversity regulation as a basis of stable ecological policy”, Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 510-523, 2018.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Ivan A. Kapitonov

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2303-4521

Digital Object Identifier DOI: 10.21533/pen

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License