The importance of evaluating the environmental design and performance of student projects as a product of architecture departments: A case study

Khalid Abdul Wahhab, Nawfal Joseph Rizko


This study investigated the extent to which the requirements and guidelines of environmental education approved by the National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB) are met in the academic programs of the Architecture Department of Al-Nahrain University. It also attempted to examine to what extent these guidelines are considered in practical and theoretical parts, and across various stages. To this end, the number of topics given in the field of environment was determined and a review of the importance of this subject was done. Then, the most important studies carried out in this area were extracted and a comparison was made between what must be achieved in the field of environmental education according to the NAAB guidelines and what really exists in educational courses of the Architecture Department of Al-Nahrain University. As a result, the shortcomings that prevented the fulfillment of the NAAB conditions were identified. The findings suggested that, in order to meet the NAAB requirements on environmental education, there is a need to activate applied practical aspects in the environmental education concerning academic projects and the preparation of supporting laboratories for applying the software and calculations on such projects to verify the projects' performance environmentally.


Environmental Education, Environmental Education in Iraq, Al-Nahrain University, NAAB, Labor Market, Assessment Basics, Rubrics

Full Text:



E. C. W. Lou, A. Lee and A. Welfle, "Greenhouse gases (GHG) performance of refurbishment projects – Lessons from UK higher education student accommodation case studies," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 154, pp. 309-317, 2017.

K. A. Saeed, M. K. Malhotra and S. Abdinnour, "How supply chain architecture and product architecture impact firm performance: An empirical examination," Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, vol. 25, (1), pp. 40-52, 2019.

L. M. Khodeir, "Blended learning methods as an approach to teaching project management to architecture students," Alexandria Engineering Journal, vol. 57, (4), pp. 3899-3905, 2018.

C. Moreno, S. Olbina and R. R. Issa, "BIM Use by Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) Industry in Educational Facility Projects," Advances in Civil Engineering, vol. 2019, pp. 1-19, 2019.

Y. Arayici, P. Coates, L. Koskela, M. Kagioglou, C. Usher, and K. O’Reilly, “Technology adoption in the BIM implementation for lean architectural practice,” Automation in Construction, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 189–195, 2011.

D. B. Arensman and M. E. Ozbek, “Building information modeling and potential legal issues,” International Journal of Construction Education and Research, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 146– 156, 2012.

D. K. Smith, “+e USC school of cinematic arts: the arrival of spring in the facilities industry,” Journal of Building Information Modeling, vol. 2009, pp. 16-17, 2009.

O. Hamdi and F. Leite, “Conflicting side of building information modeling implementation in the construction industry,” Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction, vol. 6, no. 3, article 03013004, 2014.

T. Korman and N. Lu, “Innovations and improvements of MEP systems for modular construction using building information modeling,” in Proceedings of the Architectural Engineering Conference (AEI), pp. 448–455, Oakland, CA, USA, April 2011.

K. Barlish and K. Sullivan, “How to measure the benefits of BIM—a case study approach,” Automation in Construction, vol. 24, pp. 149–159, 2012.

T. Nath, M. Attarzadeh, R. L. K. Tiong, C. Chidambaram, and Z. Yu, “Productivity improvement of precast shop drawings generation through BIM-based process re-engineering,” Automation in Construction, vol. 54, pp. 54–68, 2015.

P. Bynum, R. R. A. Issa, and S. Olbina, “Building information modeling in support of sustainable design and construction,” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, vol. 139, no. 1, pp. 24–34, 2013.

K. Lee and S. Choo, “A hierarchy of architectural design elements for energy saving of tower buildings in Korea using green BIM simulation,” Advances in Civil Engineering, vol. 2018, Article ID 7139196, 13 pages, 2018.

K. Tu and D. Vernatha, “Application of Building Information Modeling in energy management of individual departments occupying university facilities,” World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology International Journal of Architectural and Environmental Engineering, vol. 10, no. 2, 2016.

H. Gocke and K. Gocke, “Integrated system platform for energy efficient building operations,” Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, vol. 28, no. 6, article 05014005, 2014.

J. J. McArthur, “A building information management (BIM) framework and supporting case study for existing building operations, maintenance and sustainability,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 118, pp. 1104–1111, 2015, https://www. 16/j.proeng.2015.08.450.

S. Lockley, BIM for Facilities Management—University Campus, OpenBIM, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK, 2013.

Y. Ahn, H. Kwak, and J. Suk, “Contractors’ transformation strategies for adopting building information modeling,” Journal of Management in Engineering, vol. 32, no. 1, article 05015005, 2016.

C. Eastman, P. Teicholz, R. Sacks, and K. Liston, BIM Handbook: A Guide to Building Information Modeling for Owners, Managers, Designers, Engineers, and Contractors, John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2nd edition, 2011.

Y. Lu, L. Yongkui, M. Skibnievski, Z. Wu, R. Wang, and Y. Le, “Information and communication technology applications in architecture, engineering, and construction organizations: a 15-year review,” Journal of Management in Engineering, vol. 31, no. 1, article A4014010, 2015.

C. Botton and D. Forgues, “Practices and processes in BIM projects: an exploratory case study,” Advances in Civil Engineering, vol. 2018, Article ID 7259659, 12 pages, 2018.

S. Lee, J. Yu, and D. Jeong, “BIM acceptance model in construction organizations,” Journal of Management in Engineering, vol. 31, no. 3, article 04014048, 2015.

M. Gheisari and J. Irizarry, “Investigating human and technological requirements for successful implementation of a BIM-based mobile augmented reality environment in facility management practices,” Facilities, vol. 34, no. 1/2, pp. 69–84, 2016.

L. Hero and E. Lindfors, "Students’ learning experience in a multidisciplinary innovation project," Education + Training, vol. 61, (4), pp. 500-522, 2019.

Y. S. Hegzi and N. A. Abdel-Fatah, "Quantifying students' perception for deconstruction architecture," Ain Shams Engineering Journal, vol. 9, (4), pp. 2745-2754, 2018.

C. Lima et al, "Product line architecture recovery with outlier filtering in software families: the Apo-Games case study," Journal of the Brazilian Computer Society, vol. 25, (1), pp. 1-17, 2019.

H. D. Arslan, G. Özer and A. Özkiş, "Evaluation of Final Product Integrated with Intelligent Systems in Architectural Education Studios," Online Journal of Art and Design, vol. 5, (3), pp. 119, 2017.

H. D. Arslan, G. Özer and A. Özkiş, "Evaluation of Final Product Integrated with Intelligent Systems in Architectural Education Studios," Online Journal of Art and Design, vol. 5, (3), pp. 119, 2017.

R. Chen et al, "ArchME: A Systems Modeling Language extension for mechatronic system architecture modeling," Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing, vol. 32, (1), pp. 75-91, 2018.

M. E. Spencer and S. B. Watstein, "Academic Library Spaces: Advancing Student Success and Helping Students Thrive," Portal: Libraries and the Academy, vol. 17, (2), pp. 389-402, 2017.

T. Bruckner, "Design of the technological architecture for PUMPIT project," Journal of Systems Integration, vol. 10, (2), pp. 34, 2019.

L. Sapto Pamungkas, C. Meytasari and H. Trieddiantoro, "Virtual Reality As A Spatial Experience For Architecture Design: A Study of Effectiveness for Architecture Students," SHS Web of Conferences, vol. 41, pp. 5005, 2018.

C. Hein and E. van Dooren, "Teaching history for design at TU Delft: exploring types of student learning and perceived relevance of history for the architecture profession," International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 2019.

T. Tong et al, "Functional density and edge maps: Characterizing functional architecture in individuals and improving cross-subject registration," Neuroimage, vol. 158, pp. 346-355, 2017.

C. Sousa, A. P. Tereso and A. G. G. Fernandes, "Improving project management practices in architecture & design offices," 2017. . DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-56538-5_6.

L. Ulmane-ozolina, A. Jansone, I. Magazeina, and D. Barute, “Technology enhanced learning in teachers ’ professional development,” Period. Eng. Nat. Sci., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 216–221, 2019.

I. J. Ramaji and A. M. Memari, "Product Architecture Model for Multistory Modular Buildings," Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, vol. 142, (10), pp. 4016047, 2016.

S. Kim and S. K. Moon, "Eco-modular product architecture identification and assessment for product recovery," Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, vol. 30, (1), pp. 383-403, 2019.

C. Liu et al, "Product architecture design of multi-modal products," Research in Engineering Design, vol. 27, (4), pp. 331-346, 2016.

P. Zheng et al, "Smart, connected open architecture product: an IT-driven co-creation paradigm with lifecycle personalization concerns," International Journal of Production Research, vol. 57, (8), pp. 2571-2584, 2019.

N. Burton, "When do product architectures mirror organisational architectures?: the combined role of product complexity and the rate of technological change," Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, vol. 30, (9), pp. 1057-1069, 2018.

S. Pashaei, "The impact of global operations on product architecture: an exploratory study," International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 37, (10), pp. 1304-1326, 2017.

D. Williamsson, U. Sellgren and A. Söderberg, "Product Architecture Transition in a Modular Cyber-Physical Truck," Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering, vol. 19, (3), pp. 31002, 2019.

Y. Malini Reddya* and Heidi Andradeb, “A review of rubric use in higher education, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education”, vol. 35, no. 4, pp 435–448, 2010.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Khalid Abdul Wahhab, Nawfal Joseph Rizko

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2303-4521

Digital Object Identifier DOI: 10.21533/pen

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License