A performance Evaluation of Transform Domain Algorithm in Watermarking Based on Different Levels of Sub-Bands of Discrete Wavelet Transform

Musbah Jumah Aqel


This study proposed to evaluate the performance of transform domain algorithms in watermarking based on different level of sub bands of discrete wavelet transform (DWT) that can be used to overcome illegal copy, manipulation, distribution and reproduction of image on the network by implementing watermarking algorithm based on different levels that is low-level (LL), low- high (LH), high-low (HL), High-high (HH) and singular value decomposition (SVD) on image for their robustness, and imperceptibility. Moreover, two parameters were applied to evaluate the performance. That is, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) is used to measure imperceptibility of the digital image while normalize cross correlation (NCC) is applied to measure the robustness of digital image. The performance evaluations of the proposed method were implemented in MATLAB. The results showed that the described method imperceptible of HL level sub-bands than other levels of sub-bands. While the robustness is achieved by all levels sub-bands.


Wavelet transform Watermarking Singular value decompostion

Full Text:



Chowdhury,A., Shahjamal, M. & Biswas, K. (2014) A New DWT-SVD Based Image Watermarking Technique By Utilizing The Features Human Visual System, International Journal of Research in Computer Engineering and Electronics. ISSN (3)6, 11-15

Gunjal, B.L, Mali, S.N.(2014). Comparative Performance Analysis of Digital Image Watermarking Scheme in DWT and DWT-FWHT-SVD Domains.2014 Annual IEEE India Conference (INDICON).

Mardolkar, S.B &Shenvi, N. (2016). A Blind digital Watermarking Algorithm based on DWT-DCT Transformation, International Journal of Innovative Research in Electrical, Electronics, Instrumentation and Control Engineering Nitte Conference on Advances in Electrical Engineering NCAEE-2016, DOI 10.17148, (3)2 ,212-216.

Laura, L.Rasti, P.Agoyi, M.&Anbarjafari, G. (2015) .A Robust Color Image Watermarking Scheme Using Entropy and QR Decomposion,(24)4, 1-8, DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.1025.

Kang, H.,&, Iwamura, K.,(2015).Information Hiding Method Using Best DCT and Wavelet Coefficients and Its Watermark Competition, 1218-1235; doi:10.3390/e17031218

Kaur, K.,(2016). Fast Fourier Transform based Hybrid Image Watermarking using Arnold Scrambling, International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering Technology (IJRASET) (4)2, 204-2013

Laskar, T.A &Hemachandran, K.(2013). Digital image watermarking techniques and its. Applications. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT). Vol.2, No.3, pp.1-8

Patel, R., &Nandurbarkar, A.(2015). Implementation of DCT DWT SVD based watermarking algorithms for copyright protection, (2)2, 340-344

Pandurangan, R. &Logashanmugam, E. (2014). DCT-SVD And DWT-SVD Image Watermarking Techniques, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research,(9)24, 25833-25839

Potdar, Vidyasagar M. , Han S., Chang E., (2005). A survey of digital image watermarking techniques, 3rd IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (India), pp 709-716.

Rassem, T.H, Makbol, N.M &Khoo, B.E (2015). Performance Evaluation of RDWT-SVD and DWT-SVD Watermarking schemes, pp.1-9, doi.org/10.1063/1.4965108

Savakar,D.G&Ghuli, A. (2015).Semi-Fragile Digital Watermarking using Two- Level Discrete Wavelet Transformation and Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier transformation. International Journal of Computer Application, (5)7.33-42

Saxena, H., Saxena, P. &Rastogi, S. ( 2014).DWT-DCT-SVD based semi-blind reference image watermarking scheme using trigonometric function, International Journal of conceptions on Computing and Information Technology,(2)2, 14-18

Shereen Jumaa, Khamis Zidan (2019) Finger vein recognition using parallel enhancement approaches based fuzzy histogram equalization, Periodical of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Vol. 7, No. 1,

Thakur, K (2017) Hybrid DWT, FFT and SVD based Watermarking Techniquefor Different wavelet Transforms.(5)1,7-12

Tao, H. Chongmin, L., Mohamad, Z.J &, Ahmed N. Abdalla3, A.N (2014) .Robust Image watermarking Theories and Techniques: A Review, Vol.2,pp. 122-138.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21533/pen.v7i2.549


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Musbah Jumah Aqel

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2303-4521

Digital Object Identifier DOI: 10.21533/pen

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License