A performance evaluation of transform domain algorithm in watermarking based on different levels of sub-bands of discrete wavelet transform

Musbah Jumah Aqel, Aliyu Umar, Mary Agoyi


This study proposed to evaluate the performance of transform domain algorithms in watermarking based on different level of sub bands of discrete wavelet transform (DWT) that can be used to overcome illegal copy, manipulation, distribution and reproduction of image on the network by implementing watermarking algorithm based on different levels that is low-level (LL), low- high (LH), high-low (HL), High-high (HH) and singular value decomposition (SVD) on image for their robustness, and imperceptibility. Moreover, two parameters were applied to evaluate the performance. That is, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) is used to measure imperceptibility of the digital image while normalize cross correlation (NCC) is applied to measure the robustness of digital image. The performance evaluations of the proposed method were implemented in MATLAB. The results showed that the described method imperceptible of HL level sub-bands than other levels of sub-bands. While the robustness is achieved by all levels sub-bands.


Wavelet transform Watermarking Singular value decompostion

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21533/pen.v7i2.549


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Copyright (c) 2019 Musbah Jumah Aqel

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ISSN: 2303-4521

Digital Object Identifier DOI: 10.21533/pen

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License