Estimating parking generation rate for Karbala holy city using multi-variables approach

Shakir Al-Busaltan, Zahraa Kadhum Nemaa, Mustafa Amoori Kadhim, Ola Al-Jawad


Car parking planning, design, and management processes are very important to all cities and places to ensure efficient traffic system. Estimating the demand of car parking represents the significant start point for the success of these processes. Generally, there are many local and international estimating criteria, but such criteria need continuing update due to many reasons related to socioeconomic factors, lifestyle changes, development in technology, etc. Moreover, the majority of these criteria depend on single parameter for the estimation of parking demand; such as bed or employee for hospital, gross floor area or employee for office, and so on. The main aim of this research is to estimate the park generation rate for specific land uses depend on multivariable to increase the accuracy and limiting the effect of variation in parameters. Statistical analysis was conducted to create predicting models for each land use. The collected data was nominated for Karbala holy city, where different parameters are scaled for different city sectors. Groups of statistical models (i.e., simple, multi linear and nonlinear statistical models, and Weighted Linear Regression (WLR)) were used to create best representative relationship between the number of demands for car parking and multivariable parameters or factors affecting these lands used demands. Resulted statistical models were tested for best fit using statistical indices for model verification. Results disclose the significant of multivariable model compare with simple models. Also, WLR model shows it validity compare with multi-regression model for almost land use models. Consequently, for more accurate estimation the multi variable models are initiated with continuous need for updating.

Full Text:



E. Institute of Transportation, Parking generation : an informational report of the Institute of Transportation Engineers, 4th ed. 2018.

E. Institute of Transportation, Parking Generation Manual, 5th ed. 2019.

H. R. Koster and J. Rouwendal, "The impact of mixed land use on residential property values," Journal of Regional Science, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 733-761, 2012.

M. Douglass and S. Abley, "Trips and parking related to land use " 2011.

J. R. F. Regidor, "A review of trip and parking generation rates in the Philippines," Philippine Engineering Journal, vol. 27, no. 1, 2006.

M. Fathy and M. Y. Siyal, "An image detection technique based on morphological edge detection and background differencing for real-time traffic analysis," Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 1321-1330, 1995.

I. Al Barazanchi, S. A. Sahy, and Z. A. Jaaz, “Traffic Management with Deployment of Li-Fi Technology Traffic Management with Deployment of Li-Fi Technology,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 1804, no. 012141, 2021, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1804/1/012141.

J. Lee, M. Abdel-Aty, and X. Jiang, "Development of zone system for macro-level traffic safety analysis," Journal of transport geography, vol. 38, pp. 13-21, 2014.

K. J. Clifton, K. M. Currans, and C. D. Muhs, "Adjusting ITE's trip generation handbook for urban context," Journal of Transport and Land Use, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 5-29, 2015.

R. Ewing, G. Tian, T. Lyons, and K. Terzano, "Trip and parking generation at transit-oriented developments: Five US case studies," Landscape and Urban Planning, vol. 160, pp. 69-78, 2017.

H. Al-Masaeid, B. Al-Omari, and A. Al-Harahsheh, "Vehicle parking demand for different land uses in Jordan," ITE Journal, 1999.

Z. Zhou, O. J. Sun, J. Huang, L. Li, P. Liu, and X. Han, "Soil carbon and nitrogen stores and storage potential as affected by land-use in an agro-pastoral ecotone of northern China," Biogeochemistry, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 127-138, 2007.

M. Khorchani et al., "Effects of active and passive land use management after cropland abandonment on water and vegetation dynamics in the Central Spanish Pyrenees," Science of The Total Environment, vol. 717, p. 137160, 2020.

D. Merriman, "How many parking spaces does it take to create one additional transit passenger?," Regional Science and Urban Economics, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 565-584, 1998.

D. C. Shoup, "The trouble with minimum parking requirements," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, vol. 33, no. 7-8, pp. 549-574, 1999.

Z. K. Neamah, S. Al-Busaltan, and Z. Al-jwahery, "Developing a Relationship Between Land Use and Parking Demand for The Center of The Holy City of Karbala," Health, vol. 2059, p. 0.15, 2017.

H. Alghazali, H. Attya, and S. Al-Busaltan, "Non-parametric Multi-criteria Optimisation of Park and Ride Facility Locations," in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2020, vol. 671, no. 1, p. 012095: IOP Publishing.

J.-C. Chai and N. Miura, "Traffic-load-induced permanent deformation of road on soft subsoil," Journal of geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering, vol. 128, no. 11, pp. 907-916, 2002.

H. Alghazali, H. Attya, and S. Al-Busaltan, "Optimal Siting of Park and Ride Facilities Using Geospatial Approach," Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences, pp. 158-167, 2019.

J. Pucher, Z. r. Peng, N. Mittal, Y. Zhu, and N. Korattyswaroopam, "Urban transport trends and policies in China and India: impacts of rapid economic growth," Transport reviews, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 379-410, 2007.

A. Beauducel and P. Y. Herzberg, "On the performance of maximum likelihood versus means and variance adjusted weighted least squares estimation in CFA," Structural Equation Modeling, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 186-203, 2006.

T. Cunia, "Weighted least squares method and construction of volume tables," Forest Science, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 180-191, 1964.

R. C. van Aert and D. Jackson, "A new justification of the Hartung‐Knapp method for random‐effects meta‐analysis based on weighted least squares regression," Research synthesis methods, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 515-527, 2019.

L. Lenzini, E. Mingozzi, and G. Stea, "Traffic Engineering," in End-to-End Quality of Service Over Heterogeneous NetworksBerlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2008, pp. 49-73.

A. S. Levey, J. P. Bosch, J. B. Lewis, T. Greene, N. Rogers, and D. Roth, "A more accurate method to estimate glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine: a new prediction equation," Annals of internal medicine, vol. 130, no. 6, pp. 461-470, 1999.

J. Raiga-Clemenceau, J. Martin, and S. Nicoletis, "The concept of acoustic formation factor for more accurate porosity determination from sonic transit time data," in SPWLA 27th Annual Logging Symposium, 1986: Society of Petrophysicists and Well-Log Analysts.

R. Hill, P. Blenkinsopp, S. Thompson, J. Vickerman, and J. S. Fletcher, "A new time‐of‐flight SIMS instrument for 3D imaging and analysis," Surface and interface analysis, vol. 43, no. 1‐2, pp. 506-509, 2011.

K. Vincent and S. Thompson, "Estimating population size with link-tracing sampling," Journal of the American Statistical Association, vol. 112, no. 519, pp. 1286-1295, 2017.

R. Sabila, "Sites of Worship: From Makkah to Karbala; Reconciling Pilgrimage, Speculation and Infrastructure," Urban Design in the Arab World: Reconceptualizing Boundaries, pp. 177-197, 2015.

M. Dumper, Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: a historical encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO, 2007.

O. Cats, C. Zhang, and A. Nissan, "Survey methodology for measuring parking occupancy: Impacts of an on-street parking pricing scheme in an urban center," Transport Policy, vol. 47, pp. 55-63, 2016.

I. Abdulshaheed, H. R., Yaseen, Z. T., Salman, A. M., & Al_Barazanchi, “An Evaluation study of WiMAX and WiFi on Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks ( VANETs ),” IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng. Pap., vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 1–7, 2020, doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/870/1/012122.

J. Hansen, "Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: Analyzing and Understanding Data," The American Statistician, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 113-113, 2005/02/01 2005.

K. Al-Sahili and J. Hamadneh, "Establishing parking generation rates/models of selected land uses for Palestinian cities," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, vol. 91, pp. 213-222, 2016.

R. Ewing, G. Tian, K. Park, S. Sabouri, P. Stinger, and D. Proffitt, "Comparative case studies: trip and parking generation at Orenco Station TOD, Portland Region and Station Park TAD, Salt Lake City Region," Cities, vol. 87, pp. 48-59, 2019/04/01/ 2019.

A. Gjelsvik, S. Aam, and L. Holten, "Hachtel's augmented matrix method-a rapid method improving numerical stability in power system static state estimation," IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, no. 11, pp. 2987-2993, 1985.

R. Coppi, P. D’Urso, P. Giordani, and A. Santoro, "Least squares estimation of a linear regression model with LR fuzzy response," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 267-286, 2006.

S. Landau, A handbook of statistical analyses using SPSS. Chapman & Hall, 2019.

J. L. Myers, A. Well, and R. F. Lorch, Research design and statistical analysis. Routledge, 2010.

G. A. Morgan, N. L. Leech, G. W. Gloeckner, and K. C. Barrett, SPSS for introductory statistics: Use and interpretation. Psychology Press, 2004.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Shakir Al-Busaltan, Zahraa Kadhum Nemaa, Mustafa Amoori Kadhim, Ola Al-Jawad

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2303-4521

Digital Object Identifier DOI: 10.21533/pen

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License