A scrutiny study on wave energy potential and policy in TURKEY

Gökhan Ömeroğlu


Recently new and renewable energy sources began to become prominent as alternatives to fossil fuels. Among these are wind, solar, hydraulic, biomass, geothermal and wave energies. As for Turkey, the least accounted and less applied of these sources is wave energy. The government has established a short-term outlook on utilization of renewable energy sources, named “National Renewable Energy Action Plan” which is a part of Vision 2023 targets. Nonetheless, there is no planned utilization of and/or investment into wave energy in Turkey’s agenda up to the year 2023. This might be mainly because of the complex structure of wave energy conversion systems, marine conditions, mechanical difficulties and high initial investment costs. However, this type of energy is environmentally friendly, cheap and clean, and a great potential is available especially in Turkey which is surrounded on three sides by sea. Although Turkey has neither coasts to oceans nor a long stretch of west coastline, which have the highest energetic waves thanks to the prevailing west-to-east winds; the Black Sea basin, as well as the south-western Mediterranean region, may offer a good potential for development as an energetic regime, often comparable to oceanic sites in terms of wave heights, induced by strong wind patterns. In this study, wave energy potential in Turkey and recent studies made on determination of suitable sites for evaluation of wave energy in Turkey are discussed.


Electricity generation from wave energy, Wave energy, Wave energy potential in Turkey

Full Text:



M. Ö. Ültanır, 21. Yüzyıla Girerken Türkiye’nin Enerji Stratejisinin Değerlendirilmesi [Evaluation of Turkey’s 21st-Century Energy Strategy], Lebib, 1998.

L. H. Holthuijsen, Waves in oceanic and coastal waters, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007.

D. Mollison, “Wave Climate and the Wave Power Resource,” in Hydrodynamics of Ocean Wave-Energy Utilization: IUTAM Symposium Lisbon/Portugal 1985, D. V. Evans and A. F. O. Falcão, Eds., pp. 133–156, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1986.

E. Özkop, An Intelligent Controlled Novel Power Conditioning For Wave Energy Converter Systems, Ph.D. Thesis, Karadeniz Technical University, 2012.

İ. Uygur, R. Demirci, H. Saruhan et al., “Batı Karadeniz Bölgesindeki Dalga Enerjisi Potansiyelinin Araştırılması [An Investigation of Wave Energy Potential in Western Black Sea Region],” PAJES - Pamukkale University Journal of Engineering Sciences, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 7–13, 2006.

G. Iglesias and R. Carballo, “Wave energy potential along the Death Coast (Spain),” Energy, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1963–1975, 2009.

A. F. d. O. Falcão, “Wave energy utilization: A review of the technologies,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 899–918, 2010.

A. S. Bahaj, “Generating electricity from the oceans,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 3399–3416, 2011.

A. Özdamar, “Dalga Enerjisinden Elektrik Enerjisi Eldesi Üzerine Bir Araştırma: Çeşme Örneği [An Investigation on Electricity Generation from Wave Energy: Çeşme Example],” Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, vol. 17, 1-2, pp. 201–213, 2000.

International Renewable Energy Agency, “IRENA Ocean Energy Technology Brief 4 June 2014: Wave Energy Technology Brief,” 2014.

J. Cruz, Ocean wave energy: Current status and future prepectives [i.e. perspectives], Springer, Berlin, 2008.

A. Okur, Karadeniz Ereğli’de Dalga Enerjisi Üretimine Bir Yaklaşım [An Approach to Wave Energy Conversion in Karadeniz Eregli], Master Thesis, Karaelmas Üniversitesi, 2011.

A. Clément, P. McCullen, A. Falcão et al., “Wave energy in Europe: Current status and perspectives,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 405–431, 2002.

M. G. Hughes and A. D. Heap, “National-scale wave energy resource assessment for Australia,” Renewable Energy, vol. 35, pp. 1783–1791.

C. Perez-Collazo and G. Iglesias, “Integration of Wave Energy Converters and Offshore Windmills,” in Conference Proceedings, 2012.

E. Rusu, “Wave energy assessments in the Black Sea,” Journal of Marine Science and Technology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 359–372, 2009.

E. Özhan and S. Abdalla, Türkiye Kıyıları Rüzgar ve Derin Deniz Dalga Atlası [Atlas of Turkish Coastal Winds and Deep Water Waves], Turkish National Committee on Coastal Zone Management / MEDCOAST, Ankara, 2002.

M. Sağlam and T. S. Uyar, “Wave Energy and Technical Potential of Wave Energy for Turkey,” in Conference Proceedings, 2005.

A. Akpınar and M. İ. Kömürcü, “Wave energy potential along the south-east coasts of the Black Sea,” Energy, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 289–302, 2012.

“Wave Energy: Renewable Energy Research,” Bluebird Marine Systems, Ltd., http://www.bluebird-electric.net/wave_power_energy_generation.htm.

“National Renewable Energy Action For Turkey,” Ministry of Energy and Natural Sources, Republic of Turkey, 2014, http://www.eigm.gov.tr/File/?path=ROOT%2f4%2fDocuments%2fEnerji%20Politikas%C4%B1%2fNational_Renewable_Energy_Action_For_Turkey.pdf.

“General Energy Balance for the Year 2007 for Turkey,” Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, Republic of Turkey, 2011, http://www.eigm.gov.tr/File/?path=ROOT%2f4%2fDocuments% 2fDenge+Tablosu%2f2007_Denge_Tablosu.xlsx.

“General Energy Balance for the Year 2014 for Turkey,” Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, Republic of Turkey, 2016, http://www.eigm.gov.tr/File/?path=ROOT%2f4%2fDocuments%2fSayfalar%2f2014+Genel+Enerji+Denge+Tablosu.xlsx.

M. Sağlam, E. Sulukan, and T. S. Uyar, “Wave Energy and Technical Potential of Turkey,” Journal of Naval Science and Engineering, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 34–50, 2010.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21533/pen.v5i3.108


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Periodicals of Engineering and Natural Sciences (PEN)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2303-4521

Digital Object Identifier DOI: 10.21533/pen

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License